Computer Games

Magic of Dungeons & Dragons

Magic of Dungeons & Dragons consists of spells used in the settings of the role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). D&D defined the genre of fantasy role-playing games, and remains the most popular. Many of the original spells have become widely used in the role-playing community, across many different fictional worlds, and across books, board games, video games, and movies.

The specific effects of each spell, and even the names of some spells, vary from edition to edition of the D&D corpus.

Origins[edit]

The idea of spell memorization is sometimes called “Vancian” in the game designer community, since its first use, in Dungeons & Dragons, was inspired by the way magic works in Jack Vance’s Dying Earth stories.[1][2]

Types[edit]

In the Dungeons & Dragons game, magic is a force of nature, and a part of the world. There are two main types of magic: arcane, which comes from the world and universe around the caster, and divine, which is inspired from above (or below): the realms of gods and demons. Wizards, sorcerers and bards learn to cast arcane spells, which are typically flashy and powerful, but, prior to 4th edition, often require complex movements and gestures known as somatic components, which are impeded by wearing bulky armor. Clerics, druids, rangers and paladins cast divine spells, which draw their power from a deity, from nature, or simply the caster’s inner faith. While the casting of these spells is not impeded by heavy armor, it may require the caster to wear a holy symbol as a focus. A spell may exist in both arcane and

Arcane magic[edit]

These are typically spells devoted to manipulating energy, converting one substance to another, or calling on the services of other creatures. For wizards, these spells are generally committed to memory after a session of meditation upon a spellbook containing the details of the incantation. Once prepared, the spell is cast using specific words and/or gestures, and sometimes a specific material component; but the act of casting the spell causes it to fade from the wizard’s memory, so that he or she cannot cast it again without first re-memorizing

Divine magic[edit]

Divine spells take their name from the fact that they are mainly granted to clerics by the grace of the cleric’s patron deity, although the spells cast by druids, rangers and paladins also come under this category. Although divine spells can be cast equally well while wearing armor, only rarely require material components, and do not need to be prepared from a spell book, they are generally less overtly powerful than arcane spells and have fewer offensive

Cleric spells are typically devoted to either healing the wounded, restoring lost abilities, and acquiring blessings, or to inflict harm and to curse opponents. These spells must be prepared by the caster daily through a session of meditation or prayer. Since a cleric is also something of a church knight and a champion of his faith, his spells also include ones which temporarily

Druid spells are typically devoted to communing with nature, interpreting or directing the weather, communicating with creatures and plants, and the like. The druid shares some spells with the cleric, such as some healing spells, and has a number of offensive spells which use the power of nature—calling down lightning storms, for example, or summoning wild animals to fight. They also gain special powers such as shapeshifting; but these are not

Paladin and ranger spells are similar to cleric and druid spells, respectively, but they are allowed fewer spells per day, only gain access to lower-level spells, and gain access to them more slowly. Both classes have some unique spells that can be fairly powerful, despite their

Other[edit]

Pact magic, or Binding, is one of three magic systems introduced in the revised 3rd-edition sourcebook, Tome of Magic which revolves around the summoning and binding of vestiges, otherworldly spirits, to grant the user supernatural abilities. As all abilities granted by

Incarnum[edit]

Incarnum is a later addition to D&D (in a 3.5 edition book called Magic of Incarnum by James Wyatt), and is not part of the core d20 System. It is a kind of energy based on the soul. By drawing upon the spirits of past, present and future the meldshaper can become better at

After shaping a soulmeld, the meldshaper can invest his own soul energy, called essentia, into it to make it stronger. A meldshaper can also bind a soulmeld to a chakra to enhance its

Integration of Incarnum use into a campaign with traditional magic is similar to the way psionics are incorporated. The standard rule is Incarnum–magic transparency, and there is a variant rule called “Incarnum is different.”

Casting[edit]

The casting of spells within Dungeons & Dragons often requires the mage to do, say, or use something in order for the spell to work. Spells may require a verbal, somatic, or material component or a magical focus. These actions are performed by the fictional character in the game, not by the player in the real world. The player may simply state what the character does, or may embellish with sound effects or gestures to enhance the theatrics of the game. In

Material component[edit]

Casting a spell often requires that the caster sacrifice some sort of material component, which typically has a thematic connection to the spell. Often, these components are of negligible cost (egg shells, sand, a feather, etc.), but spells which allow major bending or breaking of the laws of nature, such as spells to reanimate the dead or grant wishes, require material components costing thousands of gold pieces (precious or semiprecious gems, statuettes, etc.). In 3rd and 3.5 editions, components with negligible cost are not tracked by default, and do not need to be acquired in play, any character who has their spell component pouch is

 

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Walt Disney

Walter EliasWaltDisney (/ˈdɪzni/;[1] December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer. A pioneer of the American animation industry, he introduced several developments in the production of cartoons. As a film producer he received 22 Academy Awards from 59 nominations and has won more individual Oscars than anyone else. He was presented with two Golden Globe Special Achievement Awards and one Emmy Award, among other honors. Several of his films are

Born in Chicago in 1901, Disney developed an early interest in drawing. He took art classes as a boy and got a job as a commercial illustrator at the age of 18. He moved to Hollywood in the early 1920s and set up the Disney Brothers Studio (later The Walt Disney Company) with his brother Roy. With Ub Iwerks, Walt developed the character Mickey Mouse in 1928, his first highly popular success; he also provided the voice for his creation in the early years. As the studio grew, Disney became more adventurous, introducing synchronized sound, full-color three-strip Technicolor, feature-length cartoons and technical developments in cameras. The results, seen in features such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Fantasia, Pinocchio (both 1940), Dumbo (1941) and Bambi (1942), furthered the development of animated film. New animated and live-action films followed after World War II, including

In the 1950s, Disney expanded into the amusement park industry, and in 1955 he opened Disneyland. To fund the project he diversified into television programs, such as Walt Disney’s Disneyland and The Mickey Mouse Club; he was also involved in planning the 1959 Moscow Fair and the 1960 Winter Olympics. In 1965 he began development of another theme park, Disney World (now Walt Disney World), the heart of which was to be a new

Disney was a shy, self-deprecating and insecure man in private but adopted a warm and outgoing public persona. However he had high standards and high expectations of those with whom he worked. Although there have been accusations that he was racist or anti-Semitic, they have been contradicted by many who knew him. His reputation changed in the years after his death, from a purveyor of homely patriotic values to a representative of American imperialism. He nevertheless remains an important figure in the history of animation and in the cultural history of the United States, where he is considered a national cultural icon. His

Biography

Early life: 1901–20

Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901, at 1249 Tripp Avenue, in Chicago’s Hermosa neighborhood.[a] He was the fourth son of Elias Disney‍—‌born in the Province of Canada to Irish parents‍—‌and Flora (née Call), an American of German and English descent.[3][4][b] Aside from Disney, Elias and Call’s sons were Herbert, Raymond and Roy; the couple had a fifth child, Ruth, in December 1903.[7] In 1906, when Disney was four, the family moved to a farm in Marceline, Missouri, where his uncle Robert had just purchased land. In Marceline, Disney developed his interest in drawing when he was paid to draw the horse of a retired neighborhood doctor.[8] Elias was a subscriber to the Appeal to Reason newspaper, and Disney practiced drawing by copying the front-page cartoons of Ryan Walker.[9] Disney also

In 1911, the Disneys moved to Kansas City, Missouri.[12] There, Disney attended the Benton Grammar School, where he met fellow-student Walter Pfeiffer, who came from a family of theatre fans and introduced Disney to the world of vaudeville and motion pictures. Before long, he was spending more time at the Pfeiffers’ house than at home.[13] Elias had purchased a newspaper delivery route for The Kansas City Star and Kansas City Times. Disney and his brother Roy woke up at 4:30 every morning to deliver the Times before school and repeated

In 1917, Elias bought stock in a Chicago jelly producer, the O-Zell Company, and moved back to the city with his family.[16] Disney enrolled at McKinley High School and became the cartoonist of the school newspaper, drawing patriotic pictures about World War I;[17][18] he also

Early career: 1920–28

In January 1920, as Pesmen-Rubin’s revenue declined after Christmas, Disney and Iwerks were laid off. They started their own business, the short-lived Iwerks-Disney Commercial Artists.[24] Failing to attract many customers, Disney and Iwerks agreed that Disney should leave temporarily to earn money at the Kansas City Film Ad Company, run by A. V. Cauger; the following month Iwerks, who was not able to run their business alone, also joined.[25] The company produced commercials using the cutout animation technique.[26] Disney became interested in animation, although he preferred drawn cartoons such as Mutt and Jeff and Koko the Clown. With the assistance of a borrowed book on animation and a camera, he began

In May 1921, the success of the “Laugh-O-Grams” led to the establishment of Laugh-O-Gram Studio, for which he hired a number of additional animators, including Fred Harman’s brother Hugh, Rudolf Ising and Iwerks.[32] The Laugh-O-Grams cartoons did not provide enough income to keep the company solvent, so Disney started production of

Disney moved to Hollywood in July 1923. Although New York was the center of the cartoon industry, he was attracted to Los Angeles because his brother Roy was convalescing from tuberculosis there.[35] Disney’s efforts to sell Alice’s Wonderland were in vain until he heard from New York film distributor Margaret J. Winkler. She was losing the rights to both the Out of the Inkwell and Felix the Cat cartoons, and needed a new series. In October they signed a contract for six Alice comedies, with an option for two further series of six episodes

Early in 1925, Disney hired an ink artist, Lillian Bounds. They married in July of that year. The marriage was generally happy, according to Lillian, although according to Disney’s biographer Neal Gabler she did not “accept Walt’s decisions meekly or his status unquestionably, and she admitted that he was always telling people ‘how henpecked he is’.”[40][e] Lillian had little interest in films or the Hollywood social scene and she was, in the words of the historian Steven Watts, “content with household management and providing support for her husband”.[41] Their marriage produced two daughters, Diane (born December

By 1926 Winkler’s role in the distribution of the Alice series had been handed over to her husband, the film producer Charles Mintz, although the relationship between him and Disney was sometimes strained.[45] The series ran until July 1927,[46] by which time Disney had begun to tire of it and wanted to move away from the mixed format to all animation.[45][47] After

In February 1928, Disney hoped to negotiate a larger fee for producing the Oswald series, but found Mintz wanting to reduce the payments. Mintz had also persuaded many of the artists involved to work directly for him, including Harman, Ising, Carman Maxwell and Friz Freleng. Disney also found out that Universal owned the intellectual property rights to

Creation of Mickey Mouse to the first Academy Awards: 1928–33

To replace Oswald, Disney and Iwerks developed Mickey Mouse, possibly inspired by a pet mouse that Disney had adopted while working in his Laugh-O-Gram studio, although the origins of the character are unclear.[52][h] Disney’s original choice of name was Mortimer Mouse, but Lillian thought it too pompous, and suggested Mickey instead.[53][i] Iwerks revised

Mickey Mouse first appeared in May 1928 as a single test screening of the short Plane Crazy, but it, and the second feature, The Gallopin’ Gaucho, failed to find a distributor.[56] Following the 1927 sensation The Jazz Singer, Disney used synchronized sound on the third short, Steamboat Willie, to create the first sound cartoon. After the animation was complete, Disney

To improve the quality of the music, Disney hired the professional composer and arranger Carl Stalling, on whose suggestion the Silly Symphony series was developed, providing stories through the use of music; the first in the series, The Skeleton Dance (1929), was drawn and animated entirely by Iwerks. Also hired at this time were a number of local artists, some of whom stayed with the company as core animators; the group later became known as the Nine Old Men.[59][j] Both the Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies series were successful, but Disney and his brother felt they were not receiving their rightful share of profits from Powers. In 1930, Disney tried to trim costs from the process by urging Iwerks to abandon the practice of animating every separate cel in favor of the more efficient technique of drawing key poses

With the loss of Powers as distributor, Disney studios signed a contract with Columbia Pictures to distribute the Mickey Mouse cartoons, which became increasingly popular, including internationally.[62][63][k] Disney, always keen to embrace new technology, filmed Flowers and Trees (1932) in full-color three-strip Technicolor;[64] he was also able to negotiate a deal giving him the sole right to use the three-strip process until August 31,

In 1933, Disney produced The Three Little Pigs, a film described by the media historian Adrian Danks as “the most successful short animation of all time”.[69] The film won Disney another Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category. The film’s success led to a further increase in the studio’s staff, which numbered nearly 200 by the end of the year.[70]

Golden age of animation: 1934–41

By 1934, Disney had become dissatisfied with producing formulaic cartoon shorts,[73] and began a four-year production of a feature-length cartoon, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, based on the fairy tale. When news leaked out about the project, many in the film industry predicted it would bankrupt the company; industry insiders nicknamed it “Disney’s Folly”.[74]

To ensure the animation was as realistic as possible, Disney sent his animators on courses at the Chouinard Art Institute;[76] he brought animals into the studio and hired actors so that the animators could study realistic movement.[77] To portray the changing perspective of the background as a camera moved through a scene, Disney’s animators developed a multiplane camera which allowed drawings on pieces of glass to be set at various distances from the

The first work created on the camera‍—‌a Silly Symphony called “The Old Mill” (1937)‍—‌won the Academy Award for Animated Short Film because of its impressive visual power. Although Snow White had been largely finished by the time the multiplane camera had been

Snow White premiered in December 1937 to high praise from critics and audiences. The film became the most successful motion picture of 1938 and by May 1939 its total gross of $6.5 million made it the most successful sound film made to that date.[74][l] Disney won another Honorary Academy Award, which consisted of one full-sized and seven miniature Oscar statuettes.[80][m] The success of Snow White heralded one of the most productive eras for the studio; the Walt Disney Family Museum calls the following years “the ‘Golden Age of Animation’ ”.[81][82] With work on Snow White finished, the studio began producing Pinocchio

In response to the financial crisis, Disney and his brother Roy started the company’s first public stock offering in 1940, and implemented heavy salary cuts. The latter measure, and Disney’s sometimes high-handed and insensitive manner of dealing with staff, led to a 1941 animators’ strike which lasted five weeks.[84] While a federal mediator from the National Labor Relations Board negotiated with the two sides, Disney accepted an offer from the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs to make a goodwill trip to South America, ensuring he was absent during a resolution he knew would be unfavorable to the studio.[85][n] As a result of the strike‍—‌and the financial state of the company‍—‌several

World War II and beyond: 1941–50

Shortly after the release of Dumbo in October 1941, the U.S. entered World War II. Disney formed the Walt Disney Training Films Unit within the company to produce instruction films for the military such as Four Methods of Flush Riveting and Aircraft Production Methods.[90] Disney also met with Henry Morgenthau, Jr., the Secretary of the Treasury, and agreed to

The military films generated only enough revenue to cover costs, and the feature film Bambi‍—‌which had been in production since 1937‍—‌underperformed on its release in April 1942, and lost $200,000 at the box office.[93] On top of the low earnings from Pinocchio and Fantasia, the company had debts of $4 million with the Bank of America in 1944.[94][o] At a meeting with Bank of America executives to discuss the future of the company, the bank’s chairman and founder, Amadeo Giannini, told his executives, “I’ve been watching the Disneys’ pictures quite closely because I knew we were lending them money far above the financial risk. … They’re good this year, they’re good next year, and they’re good the year

Disney grew more politically conservative as he got older. A Democratic Party supporter until the 1940 presidential election, when he switched allegiance to the Republicans,[97] he became a generous donor to Thomas E. Dewey‘s 1944 bid for the presidency.[98] In 1946 he was a founding member of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, an organization who stated they “believ[ed] in, and like, the American Way of Life … we find ourselves in sharp revolt against a rising tide of Communism, Fascism and kindred

In 1949, Disney and his family moved to a new home in the Holmby Hills district of Los Angeles. With the help of his friends Ward and Betty Kimball, who already had their own backyard railroad, Disney developed blueprints and immediately set to work on creating a miniature live steam railroad for his backyard. The name of the railroad,

Theme parks and other interests: 1950–66

In early 1950, Disney produced Cinderella, his studio’s first animated feature in eight years. It was popular with critics and theater audiences. Costing $2.2 million to produce, it earned nearly $8 million in its first year.[104][q] Disney was less involved than he had been with previous pictures because of his involvement in his first entirely live-action feature, Treasure Island (1950), which was shot in Britain, as was The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men (1952).[105] Other all-live-action features followed, many of which had patriotic

For several years Disney had been considering building a theme park. When he visited Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters, he wanted to be in a clean, unspoiled park, where both children and their parents could have fun.[107] He visited the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark, and was heavily influenced by the cleanliness and layout of the park.[108] In March 1952 he received zoning permission to build a theme park in Burbank, near the Disney studios.[109] This site proved too small, and a larger plot in Anaheim, 35 miles (56 km) south of the studio, was purchased. To distance the project from the studio‍—‌which might attract the criticism of shareholders‍—‌Disney formed WED Enterprises (now Walt Disney Imagineering) and used his own money to fund a group of designers and animators to work on the plans;[110][111] those involved became known as “Imagineers”.[112] After obtaining bank funding he invited other stockholders, American Broadcasting-Paramount Theatres‍—‌part of American Broadcasting Company (ABC)‍—‌and Western Printing and Lithographing Company.[57] In mid-1954, Disney sent his Imagineers to every amusement park in the U.S. to analyze what worked and what pitfalls or problems there were in the various locations and incorporated their findings into his design.[113] Construction work started in July 1954, and Disneyland opened in July 1955; the opening ceremony was broadcast on ABC, which reached 70 million viewers.[114] The park was designed as a series of themed lands, linked by the central Main Street, U.S.A.‍—‌a replica of the main street in his hometown of Marceline.

The money from ABC was contingent on Disney television programs.[119] The studio had been involved in a successful television special on Christmas Day 1950 about the making of Alice in Wonderland. Roy believed the program added millions to the box office takings. In a March 1951 letter to shareholders, he wrote that “television can be a most powerful selling aid for us, as well as a source of revenue. It will probably be on this premise that we enter television when we do”.[57] In 1954, after the Disneyland funding had been agreed, ABC broadcast Walt Disney’s Disneyland, an anthology consisting of animated cartoons, live-action features and other material from the studio’s library. The show was successful in terms of ratings and profits, earning an audience share of over 50%.[120][s] In April 1955, Newsweek called the series an “American institution”.[121] ABC was pleased with the ratings, leading to Disney’s first daily television program, The Mickey Mouse Club, a variety show catering

In addition to the construction of Disneyland, Disney worked on other projects away from the studio. He was consultant to the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow; Disney Studios’ contribution was America the Beautiful, a 19-minute film in the 360-degree

Despite the demands wrought by non-studio projects, Disney continued to work on film and television projects. In 1955 he was involved in “Man in Space“, an episode of the Disneyland series, which was made in collaboration with NASA rocket designer Wernher von Braun.[t]

In 1964, Disney produced Mary Poppins, based on the book series by P. L. Travers; he had been trying to acquire the rights to the story since the 1940s.[130] It became the most successful Disney film of the 1960s, although Travers disliked the film intensely and regretted having

Disney provided four exhibits for the 1964 New York World’s Fair, for which he obtained funding from selected corporate sponsors. For PepsiCo, who planned to tribute UNICEF, Disney developed It’s a Small World, a boat ride with audio-animatronic dolls depicting children of the world; Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln contained an animatronic

During the early to mid-1960s, Disney developed plans for a ski resort in Mineral King, a glacial valley in California’s Sierra Nevada. He hired experts such as the renowned Olympic ski coach and ski-area designer Willy Schaeffler.[135][136][u] With income from Disneyland accounting for an increasing proportion of the studio’s income, Disney continued to look for venues for other attractions. In late 1965, he announced plans to develop another theme park to be called “Disney World” (now Walt Disney World), a few miles southwest of

an experimental prototype community of tomorrow that will take its cue from the new ideas and new technologies that are now emerging from the creative centers of American industry. It will be a community of tomorrow that will never be completed, but will always be

During 1966, Disney cultivated businesses willing to sponsor EPCOT.[140] He increased his involvement in the studio’s films, and was heavily involved in the story development of

Illness, death and aftermath

Disney had been a heavy smoker since World War I. He did not use cigarettes with filters, and had smoked a pipe as a young man. In November 1966, he was diagnosed with lung cancer and treated with cobalt therapy. On November 30 he felt unwell and was taken to the St. Joseph Hospital where, on December 15, ten days after his 65th birthday, he died of

His estate included a 14 percent holding in Walt Disney Productions worth $20 million.[w][x] He left 45 percent of his estate to his wife and children‍—‌much in a family trust‍—‌and 10 percent to his sister, nieces and nephews.[146] The remaining 45 percent went into a charitable

The release of The Jungle Book and The Happiest Millionaire in 1967 raised the total number of feature films that Disney had been involved in to 81.[17] When Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day was released in 1968, it earned Disney an Academy Award in the Short Subject (Cartoon) category, awarded posthumously.[148] After Disney’s death, his studios continued to

Disney’s plans for the futuristic city of EPCOT did not come to fruition. After Disney’s death, his brother Roy deferred his retirement to take full control of the Disney companies. He changed the focus of the project from a town to an attraction.[151] At the inauguration in 1971, Roy dedicated Walt Disney World to his brother.[152][y] Walt Disney World expanded with the opening of Epcot Center in 1982; Walt Disney’s vision of a functional city was replaced by a

Disney has been portrayed numerous times in fictional works. H. G. Wells references Disney in his 1938 novel The Holy Terror, in which World Dictator Rud fears that Donald Duck is meant to lampoon the dictator.[158] Disney was portrayed by Len Cariou in the 1995 made-for-TV film A Dream Is a Wish Your Heart Makes: The Annette Funicello Story,[159] and by

Honors

Disney received 59 Academy Award nominations, including 22 awards: both totals are records.[162] He was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards, but did not win, but he was presented with two Special Achievement Awards‍—‌for Bambi (1942) and The Living Desert (1953)‍—‌and the Cecil B. DeMille Award.[163] He also received four Emmy Award nominations, winning once, for Best Producer for the Disneyland television series.[164] Several of his films are included in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”: Steamboat Willie, The

Personality and reputation

Disney’s public persona was very different from his actual personality.[179] Playwright Robert E. Sherwood described him as “almost painfully shy … diffident” and self-deprecating.[180] According to his biographer Richard Schickel, Disney hid his shy and insecure personality behind his public identity.[181] Kimball argues that Disney “played the role of a bashful tycoon who was embarrassed in public” and knew that he was doing so.[182] Disney acknowledged the façade, and told a friend that “I’m not Walt Disney. I do a lot of things Walt Disney would not do. Walt Disney does not smoke. I smoke. Walt Disney does not drink. I drink.”[183] Critic Otis Ferguson, in The New Republic, called the private Disney: “common and everyday, not inaccessible, not in a foreign language, not suppressed or sponsored or anything. Just

Views of Disney and his work have changed over the decades, and there have been polarized opinions.[186] Mark Langer, in the American Dictionary of National Biography, writes that “Earlier evaluations of Disney hailed him as a patriot, folk artist, and popularizer of culture. More recently, Disney has been regarded as a paradigm of American imperialism and intolerance, as well as a debaser of culture.”[57] Steven Watts wrote that some denounce Disney “as a cynical manipulator of cultural and commercial formulas”,[186] while PBS records that critics have censured his work because of its “smooth façade of sentimentality and stubborn optimism, its feel-good re-write of American history”.[187] Although Disney’s films have been highly praised, very popular and commercially successful over time,[57][188] there were criticisms by reviewers. Caroline Lejeune comments in The Observer that Snow White (1937) “has more faults than any earlier Disney cartoon. It is vulnerable again and again to

Disney has been accused of anti-semitisim,[193][z] although none of his employees‍—‌including the animator Art Babbitt, who disliked Disney intensely‍—‌ever accused him of making anti-semitic slurs or taunts.[195] The Walt Disney Family Museum acknowledges that ethnic stereotypes common to films of the 1930s were included in some early cartoons.[aa] Disney donated regularly to Jewish charities, he was named “1955 Man of the Year” by the B’nai B’rith chapter in Beverly Hills,[196][197] and his studio employed a number of Jews, some of whom where in influential positions.[198] Gabler, the first writer to gain unrestricted access to

Disney has also been accused of racism because a number of his productions released between the 1930s and 1950s contain racially insensitive material.[201][ab] The feature film Song of the South was criticized by contemporary film critics, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and others for its perpetuation of black stereotypes,[202] but Disney later campaigned successfully for an Honorary Academy Award for its star, James Baskett, the first black actor so honored.[203][ac] Gabler argues that “Walt Disney was no racist.

Watts argues that many of Disney’s post World War II films “legislated a kind of cultural Marshall Plan. They nourished a genial cultural imperialism that magically overran the rest of the globe with the values, expectations, and goods of a prosperous middle-class United States.”[205] Film historian Jay P. Telotte acknowledges that many see Disney’s studio as an “agent of manipulation and repression”, although he observes that it has “labored throughout its history to link its name with notions of fun, family, and fantasy”.[206] John Tomlinson, in his study Cultural Imperialism, examines the work of Ariel Dorfman and Armand Mattelart,

Several commentators have described him as a cultural icon.[209] On Disney’s death, journalism professor Ralph S. Izard comments that the values in Disney’s films are those “considered valuable in American Christian society”, which include “individualism, decency, … love for our fellow man, fair play and toleration”.[210] Disney’s obituary in The Times calls the films “wholesome, warm-hearted and entertaining … of incomparable artistry and of touching beauty”.[211] Journalist Bosley Crowther argues that Disney’s “achievement as a creator of entertainment for an almost unlimited public and as a highly ingenious merchandiser of his wares can rightly be compared to the most successful industrialists in history.”[4] Correspondent Alistair Cooke calls Disney a “folk-hero … the Pied Piper of Hollywood”,[212] while Gabler considers Disney “reshaped the culture and the American consciousness”.[188] In the American Dictionary of National Biography, Langer writes:

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Grand Theft Auto (video game)

Grand Theft Auto is an open world action-adventure video game developed by DMA Design and published by BMG Interactive. It was first released in Europe and North America in October 1997 for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows. It was later re-released on 14 December 1997 in Europe and 30 June 1998 in North America for the PlayStation. It is the first instalment of the Grand Theft Auto series, a series that has sold more than 150 million units as of September 2013.[1] The story follows a group of criminals in three fictionalised versions

The game was originally intended to be named Race’n’Chase and to be developed for the Commodore Amiga, starting in 1996.[2] and was nearly cancelled due to production issues.[3]

Gameplay[edit]

Grand Theft Auto is made up of six levels split between the three main cities. In each level, the player’s ultimate objective is to reach a target number of points, which is typically achieved by performing tasks for the city’s local crime syndicate. Each level is initiated at a telephone box and has its own unique set of tasks.[4] Successful completion of a mission rewards the player with points and opens the opportunity to attempt harder missions for higher rewards, while failure awards fewer points and may permanently seal off opportunities

There are eight playable characters in the game, four male and four female: Travis, Troy, Bubba, Kivlov, Ulrika, Katie, Divine, and Mikki (the PlayStation version only includes the four male characters, however). In actual gameplay, there is no real difference, since all player-characters wear the identical yellow jumper, although they do wear different coloured trousers and hair colours to each other and have the correct skin colours. Players may also

The player is free to do whatever they want, but have limited lives upon doing so. The player can gain points by causing death and destruction amid the traffic in the city, or steal and sell cars for profit. To get to the large target money required to complete a level, players will usually opt to complete at least some missions to build up their multiplier. Some criminal acts have an inherent multiplier; for example, using a police car for running over people doubles the number of points received. If the player is arrested then their multiplier is halved. Unlike

Even during missions there is still some freedom as most of the time the player is free to choose the route to take, but the destination is usually fixed. It was this level of freedom which set Grand Theft Auto apart from other action based computer games at the time.[5] The PC releases of the game allowed networked multiplayer gameplay using the IPX protocol.[6]

Synopsis[edit]

Grand Theft Auto takes place in 1997 in three primary settings, all of which are modelled on real locales: Liberty City is based on New York City, Vice City is based on Miami, and San Andreas is based on regions of California and Nevada. All three suffer from rampant crime and corruption, with constant feuding between the local crime syndicates, random acts of

While Grand Theft Auto: London, 1969, Grand Theft Auto: London, 1961 and Grand Theft Auto 2 would use different locations, these three cities have been individually revisited as the settings in later Grand Theft Auto games, with differing layouts – for example, Liberty City

Development[edit]

The development of Grand Theft Auto began on 4 April 1995 at DMA Design in Edinburgh. It originally had a protracted four-year development, which included a title change and

The game was originally titled Race’n’Chase until Dan and Sam Houser renamed it.[8] It was originally planned to be released on MS-DOS, Windows 95, PlayStation, Sega Saturn and the Nintendo 64. However, it was never released for the two latter consoles. During the development of Grand Theft Auto, many people overseeing the game’s progress attempted to

An original design document, dated 22 March 1995, was posted online by Mike Dailly on 22 March 2011.[9][10][11] The author of the document credited is K.R. Hamilton, and the released version is 1.05. It contained information about elements of the game discussed in various meetings held from 23 January 1995 to the writing of the document which also contains many similarities to the 1986 Commodore 64 Miami Vice. According to the original design document, the introduction to Grand Theft Auto is a pre-drawn/rendered animation. The Windows 95 version was developed using Visual C++ v2.0. The DOS version was developed using Watcom C/C++ v10, Microsoft MASM 6.1 and Rational Systems DOS extender

The original concept of Grand Theft Auto was “to produce a fun, addictive and fast multi-player car racing and crashing game which uses a novel graphics method”.

Gary Penn, creative director of DMA at the time cited Elite as a major influence, “But I’d been working on Frontier, which is very different and there were definitely other people on the team who had things like Syndicate, Mercenary and Elite very much in their minds as well. That combination definitely led to the more open plan structure there is now. The game as it stands now is basically Elite in a city, but without quite the same sense of taking on the jobs. You take on the jobs in a slightly different way, but incredibly similar structurally. It’s

Ports[edit]

The original Grand Theft Auto was developed for the MS-DOS, but then later ported to Microsoft Windows (using SciTech MGL), PlayStation (developed by Visual Sciences using their “ViSOS” framework),[13] and Game Boy Color. The Game Boy Color version was technologically unabridged, which was quite a technical achievement[original research?] due to the sheer size of the cities, converted tile-for-tile from the PC original, making them many times

The PC version comes in several different executables for DOS and MS-Windows, which use single set of data files (except for the 8-bit colour DOS version which uses different but similar graphics). It was previously available as a free download as part of the Rockstar

Grand Theft Auto was to be released on the Sega Saturn, but due to the console’s rapid decline in popularity before development was finished, the project was halted and the game was never released.[citation needed] After the PlayStation’s successful release, development began on

Cover art[edit]

The cover art for Grand Theft Auto is a photograph of a New York Police Department 1980s Plymouth Gran Fury rushing through the intersection of Fifth Avenue and 56th Street, with

Soundtrack[edit]

Grand Theft Auto has seven “radio stations”, plus a police band track, which can be heard once the player enters a car; however, each vehicle can only receive a limited number of

PC players can remove the CD once the game is loaded and replace it with an audio CD. The next time the character enters a vehicle, a song from the CD will randomly play. This can

The game’s main theme is “Gangster Friday” by Craig Conner, credited to the fictitious band Slumpussy, and is played on N-CT FM.[17] With the exception of Head Radio FM, the names of songs or the radio station names are never mentioned in-game. However, the soundtrack is

The Collector’s Edition of the PC version included the soundtrack on a separate CD. The track-listing gives the names of the fictional radio stations, bands and their tracks, and for

Reception[edit

Contemporary[edit]

The game was a best-seller in the UK.[21] The game created quite a stir[weasel words], and was a commercial success, though it received mixed reviews upon release.

GameSpot‘s 1998 review for Grand Theft Auto said that, although the graphics may look “a little plain”, the music and sound effects are the opposite, praising the radio stations and the sound effects used to open and close vehicles. They also praised the freedom of the game,

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Final Fantasy

Final Fantasy (ファイナルファンタジー, Fainaru Fantajī?) is a science fiction and fantasy media franchise created by Hironobu Sakaguchi, and developed and owned by Square Enix (formerly Square). The franchise centers on a series of fantasy and science fantasy role-playing video games (RPGs). The eponymous first game in the series, published in 1987, was conceived by Sakaguchi as his last-ditch effort in the game industry; the title was a success

Although most Final Fantasy installments are stand-alone stories with different settings and main characters, they feature identical elements that define the franchise. Recurring elements include plot themes, character names, and game mechanics. Plots center on a group of heroes battling a great evil while exploring the characters’ internal struggles and relationships.

The series has been commercially and critically successful; it is Square Enix’s best selling video game franchise, with more than 110 million units sold, and is one of the best-selling video game franchises of all time. The series is well known for its innovation, visuals, and music, such as the inclusion of full motion videos, photo-realistic character models, and

The central conflict in many Final Fantasy games focuses on a group of characters battling an evil, and sometimes ancient, antagonist that dominates the game’s world. Stories frequently involve a sovereign state in rebellion, with the protagonists taking part in the rebellion. The heroes are often destined to defeat the evil, and occasionally gather as a direct

Stories in the series frequently emphasize the internal struggles, passions, and tragedies of the characters, and the main plot often recedes into the background as the focus shifts to their personal lives.[23][72] Games also explore relationships between characters, ranging from love to rivalry.[3] Other recurring situations that drive the plot include amnesia, a hero corrupted by an evil force, mistaken identity, and self-sacrifice.[3][73][74] Magical orbs and crystals are recurring in-game items that are frequently connected to the themes of the games’ plots.[71] Crystals

Gameplay[edit]

In Final Fantasy games, players command a party of characters as they progress through the game’s story by exploring the game world and defeating opponents.[3][71] Enemies are typically encountered randomly through exploring, a trend which changed in Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy XII. The player issues combat orders—like “Fight”, “Magic”, and “Item”—to individual characters via a menu-driven interface while engaging in battles. Throughout the series, the games have used different battle systems. Prior to Final Fantasy XI, battles were turn-based with the protagonists and antagonists on different sides of the battlefield. Final Fantasy IV introduced the “Active Time Battle” (ATB) system that augmented the turn-based nature with a perpetual time-keeping system. Designed by Hiroyuki Ito, it injected urgency and excitement into combat by requiring the player to act before an enemy attacks, and was

Like most RPGs, the Final Fantasy installments use an experience level system for character advancement, in which experience points are accumulated by killing enemies.[85][86][87][88] Character classes, specific jobs that enable unique abilities for characters, are another recurring theme. Introduced in the first game, character classes have been used differently in each title. Some restrict a character to a single job to integrate it into the story, while other

Magic is another common RPG element in the series. The method by which characters gain magic varies between installments, but is generally divided into classes organized by color: “White magic”, which focuses on spells that assist teammates; “Black magic”, which focuses on harming enemies; “Red magic”, which is a combination of white and black magic, “Blue magic”, which mimics enemy attacks; and “Green magic” which focuses on applying

Different means of transportation have appeared through the series. The most common is the airship for long range travel, accompanied by chocobos for travelling short distances, but

Impact and legacy[edit]

The Final Fantasy series and several specific games within it have been credited for introducing and popularizing many concepts that are today widely used in console RPGs.[3][113] The original title is often cited as one of the most influential early console RPGs, and played a major role in legitimizing and popularizing the genre. Many console RPGs featured one-on-one battles against monsters from a first-person perspective. Final Fantasy introduced a side view perspective with groups of monsters against a group of characters that has been frequently used.[3][91][113] It also introduced an early evolving class change system,[176][177] as well as different methods of transportation, including a ship, canoe, and flying airship.[178] Final Fantasy II was the first sequel in the industry to omit characters and locations from the previous title.[5] It also introduced an activity-based progression system,[179] which has been used in later RPG series such as SaGa,[180] Grandia,[181] and The Elder Scrolls.[179] Final Fantasy III introduced the job system, a character progression engine allowing the player to

The series affected Square’s business on several levels. The commercial failure of Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within resulted in hesitation and delays from Enix during merger discussions with Square.[47][91] Square’s decision to produce games exclusively for the Sony PlayStation—a move followed by Enix’s decision with the Dragon Quest series—severed their relationship with Nintendo.[3][113] Final Fantasy games were absent from Nintendo consoles, specifically the Nintendo 64, for seven years.[97][114] Critics attribute the switch of strong third-party titles like the Final Fantasy and Dragon Quest games to Sony’s PlayStation, and away from the Nintendo 64, as one of the reasons behind PlayStation being

The series’ popularity has resulted in its appearance and reference in numerous facets of popular culture like anime, TV series, and webcomics.[186][187][188] Music from the series has permeated into different areas of culture. Final Fantasy IV‘s “Theme of Love” was integrated into the curriculum of Japanese school children and has been performed live by orchestras and metal bands.[189] In 2003, Uematsu became involved with The Black Mages, a rock group independent of Square that has released albums of arranged Final Fantasy tunes.[190][191]

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Simulation video game

simulation video game describes a diverse super-category of video games, generally designed to closely simulate aspects of a real or fictional reality.

A simulation game attempts to copy various activities from real life in the form of a game for various purposes such as training, analysis, or prediction. Usually there are no strictly defined goals in the game, with players instead allowed to freely control a character.[1] Well-known examples are war games, business games, and role play simulation.

From three basic types of strategic, planning, and learning exercises: games, simulations, and case studies, a number of hybrids may be considered, including simulation games that are used as case studies.[2]

Comparisons of the merits of simulation games versus other teaching techniques have been carried out by many researchers and a number of comprehensive reviews have been published.[3]

History[edit]

While many credit simulation games beginning with Will Wright and SimCity in 1989, the true progenitor of the genre was “Fortune Builder”, released in 1984 on Colecovision.[4] Certain games such as SimLife and SimEarth were subsequently created and are capable of teaching players the basics of genetics and global ecosystems.[citation needed]

In a study where adolescents played SimCity 2000, the study found that those participants who played the game had a greater appreciation and expectation of their government officials after playing.[5]

Subgenres[edit]

Construction and management simulation[edit]

Construction and management simulation (CMS)[6] is a type of simulation game in which players build, expand or manage fictional communities or projects with limited resources.[7] Strategy games sometimes incorporate CMS aspects into their game economy, as players must manage resources while expanding their project. But pure CMS games differ from

Life simulation[edit]

Life simulation games (or artificial life games)[11] is a subgenre of simulation video games in which the player lives or controls one or more artificial lifeforms. A life simulation game can revolve around “individuals and relationships, or it could be a simulation of an ecosystem”.[11]

Sports[edit]

Main article: Sports game

A sports game is a video game that simulates the playing of sports. Most sports have been recreated with a game, including team sports, athletics and extreme sports. Some games emphasize actually playing the sport (such as the Madden NFL series), whilst others emphasize strategy and organization (such as Championship Manager). Some, such as Arch Rivals, satirize the sport for comic effect. This genre has been popular throughout the history

Other types[edit]

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